Jesus Christ Prison Ministry


Greek Empire

“When Alexander burst into Asia, however, no opposition could stop him.” Collier.

“In 331 b.c., refusing an offer from Darius to cede all lands west of the Euphrates, he crossed the Euphrates and Tigris from northern Syria. With an army reinforced to over 40,000 men, he met the full force of Darius’ empire in the plains at Gaugamela, sixty miles west of Arbela (modern Erbil), even though the name Arbela is sometimes given to the battle. Enormously outnumbered, but with consummate skill, he advanced obliquely towards Darius’ left wing, holding off outflanking cavalry attacks with flank guards of his Greek and Thracian troops, while Thracian javelin men in advance brought down the horses of a Persian scythed-chariot charge.

“A gap opened between the Persian center and left as the Persian formation tried to conform to his flankward movement, and into it Alexander charged with his 2,000 ‘companions’ or horse guards, supported on their left by the main force of his infantry pikemen, the Macedonian phalanx.  Darius’ best infantry were cut to pieces in a short, fierce struggle, and he, as at Issus, fled. The date was probably October 7, not October 11 as has often been claimed.”   Collier. 

Verse 4 states that “his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven.  It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.”  How true that prophecy was.  When Alexander died, “he had still made no arrangements for the government of the empire, even of Macedonia itself, in the event of his death or disablement (surely a heavy count against him); and fighting between his generals, in which the empire was dismembered and his posthumous son and only child perished along with Roxane, began within two years.”   Collier

“Upon the death of Alexander, his empire, the largest the world had known, was divided among his generals.”   Collier 

1.  “Lysimachus, c.360-281 BC, a senior Macedonian officer under ALEXANDER THE GREAT, was assigned rule over Thrace after Alexander’s death in 323.”   Collier 

2.  “Cassander, c.358-297 BC, king of Macedonia, was son of the regent ANTIPATER and one of the diadochi, or successors, of ALEXANDER THE GREAT.”   Collier 

3.  “SELEUCID DYNASTY, the Macedonian family that established itself in 312 b.c. as heir to a large part of the Asiatic empire of Alexander the Great.  The Seleucid realm was centered on Syria but at times extended throughout much of the Near East, from Asia Minor to northern India. Under the Seleucids, Greek culture continued to be diffused throughout Asia. The dynasty’s rulers were almost continuously at war with rebellious provincial rulers, the other Hellenistic states that followed in the wake of Alexander, invading Gauls, and, later, the Romans. Seleucid Syria was finally annexed as a Roman province in 65 b.c.”   Collier 

“Seleucus I Nicator (r. 312-281 b.c.). The dynasty derives its name from its founder, Seleucus I, one of Alexander’s generals. In 312 b.c. Seleucus took over Babylon during the civil wars after Alexander’s death. Like the other successors of Alexander, Seleucus desired all of Alexander’s empire.”  Collier 

“Seleucus I Nicator (“the Conqueror”), b. c.358 BC, was the greatest of the Diadochi, or successors, of Alexander the Great. He fought under Alexander and after the king’s death (323) received the province of Babylonia.”   “ He took the royal title in 305.”   Collier 

4.  “PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY , the ruling family of Egypt from 323 b.c. to 30 b.c. The dynasty was founded by Ptolemy, son of Lagos, one of Alexander’s generals. Ptolemy took possession of Egypt shortly after Alexander died and held the country against all his rivals. In 305 b.c., he assumed the title of king and reigned until his death in 285 b.c. Ptolemy and his descendants built up an empire which included Egypt, Cyprus, southern Syria, and Cyrene.”   Collier 

“Ptolemy I, c.367-283 BC, created the political and military foundations of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt (323-30 BC). When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, Ptolemy, one of Alexander’s leading Macedonian generals, became satrap (governor) of Egypt. In 304 he declared himself king.”   Collier 

“The principal enemies of the Ptolemies were the Seleucids, with whom they fought a half dozen major wars.”  “A long series of wars between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies of Egypt began during his reign. This rivalry continued throughout the third century and into the second.  The principal bone of contention was southern Syria.”   Collier 

To recap the above history, we find that the empire which Alexander built was parceled out to his four generals: Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucid and Ptolemy.  It is at this point that we have the wars of the kings of the South (Ptolemy) against the kings of the North (Seleucid).